Other Teacher Decisions When Planning for Learning

Instructional Models: Teaching Content and Thinking Skills

An instructional model acts as a blueprint for teaching. However, just as blueprints do not dictate all actions of engineers, instructional models are not intended to dictate actions of teachers. Teachers must select the appropriate model in order to achieve a specified goal, just as engineers select appropriate designs or methods based on desired outcomes. Models differ from general teaching strategies because they are designed to reach specific goals. In fact, instructional models generally include a variety of instructional strategies. (Eggen & Kauchak, 2001) The sample instructional models outlined in Appendix D, designed to help students learn content and develop thinking skills, include many high-yield instructional strategies identified by Robert Marzano (2001) and his colleagues.

High-Yield Instructional Strategies

In Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, Robert Marzano (2001) and his colleagues identify nine high-yield instructional strategies through a meta-analytic study of over 100 independent studies. Marzano and his colleagues found that these nine strategies have the greatest positive effect on student achievement for all students, in all subject areas, at all grade levels, especially when strategically matched to the specific type of knowledge being sought. Therefore, these strategies should be incorporated into lessons in the Unit Plan Framework. Marzano's nine high-yield instructional strategies are summarized in Appendix E.