- Personal Response - More than one right answer
- Clear/Modeled Expectations - Student knows what success "looks like"
- Emotional/Intellectual Safety - Freedom to take risks
- Learning with Others (Affiliation) - Learning has a social component
- Sense of Audience - Student work is shared
- Choice - Students have meaningful options
- Novelty and Variety - Learning experiences are unusual or unexpected
- Authenticity - Connections to experience or prior learning